GSM SYSTEM SURVEY STUDENT TEXT EN/LZT R2C GSM System Survey DISCLAIMER This book is a training document and contains. GSM System Survey - LZT (GSM System Survey GSM System Survey STUDENT BOOK LZT ) Download PDF. Ericsson Gsm System Survey PDF - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File . txt) or read online for free. Ericsson-gsm-system-survey-pdf.
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File. Faith Tanui/Theo Makokha. GSM SYSTEM SURVEY. USE OF THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE. The purpose of this guide is to assists teachers of the GSM System. Dears, Kindly, find attached Ericsson training document titled "GSM System Survey R9A". Note that document is the new release R9A. GSM System Survey - redelocidi.gq التسميات: ericsson survey, ericsson training, gsm basics, gsm material, Gsm Can you post the original pdf?.
Until then, radio communications consisted of transmissions of Morse Code. Fleming invents the vacuum tube making it possible to build mobile radios.
GSM System Survey - LZT1233321
The system was one way and police had to find a wire-line phone to respond to radio messages. Amplitude Modulation AM , two-way mobile systems in place in the U. By the end of the decade channel allocation grew from 11 to Invention of Frequency Modulation FM improved audio quality. FM eliminated the need for large AM transmitters and resulted in radio equipment that required less power to operate. This made the use of transmitters in vehicles more practical.
Louis in using the MHz band. Ring, working at Bell Laboratories, envisions the cellular concept.
Bell Systems made broadband proposals. This led to the standardization of telecommunications for all members of the Nordic Mobile Telephone NMT group, the first comprehensive international standardization group. This feature would become the basis for roaming. Ericsson launches the world's first cellular system in Saudi Arabia based on the analog NMT standard. First successful test calls made on 3G networks. Table Since the development of NMT in , many standards for mobile communication have been developed throughout the world.
Each mobile standard has been developed to meet the particular requirements of the country or interest groups involved in its specification. For this reason, although a standard may be suitable for one country, it may not be suitable for another.
The main standards and the main markets in which they are used are summarized in the following table. Ericsson's key product is the AXE digital exchange which is in service in the most sophisticated public networks in Europe, the Americas, Australia, Africa and Asia. One of the key reasons for the success of AXE is that it is modular in design which allows it to adapt easily to a wide variety of applications.
The concept of open systems and standardized interfaces is fundamental to the development of all new telecommunication products within Ericsson. It offers network products for all major standards, both analogue and digital.
The following table summarizes the Ericsson product solution for each mobile standard. These comply with the PCS standard.
The GSM technical specifications are also designed to work with other standards as standard interfaces are guaranteed. Finally, a key aspect of GSM is that the specifications are open- ended and can be built upon to meet future requirements. The GSM specifications do not specify the actual hardware requirements, but instead specify the network functions and interfaces in detail.
This allows hardware designers to be creative in how they provide the actual functionality, but at the same time makes it possible for operators to download equipment from different suppliers. Each series was written by different working parties and a number of expert groups. Data Transmission Interface - Provides an interface to various networks for the exchange of data communications. Visitor Location Register - It is a temporary database that stores subscriber information needed by the MSC to complete calls.
Ericsson Mobile Intelligent Network - It is an additional node that is used in some systems as a flexible and convenient way in which to provide more varied services.
Base Transceiver Station - consists of the actual radio equipment needed such as antennas and transceivers needed to operate a wireless service RBS: Public Land Mobile Network: Reserved for future use o Class 2: BSIC Is used by the base station when measuring mobile station signal strength It allows a mobile station to distinguish between cells using the same frequency The BSIC consists of two parts o The Network Color Code NCC is used to distinguish between to operators using the same frequency and to differentiate between cells in border areas If the mobile station detects an NCC that is not allowed it will discard that measurement o The Base Station Color Code BCC Protects against co-channel interference It is normally the same for all cells within a cluster It allows the BSC to remove measurements reported from the mobile station from cells belonging to other clusters Location Area Identity: Performs telephony functions such as traffic handling, operation and maintenance Connected to traffic handling and charging Hardware and software APZ: Control part Hardware and software to control telephony functions Contains: It can be a stand alone node or on the same platform as the BSC - The TRC is a new element and not all networks will be required to have one.
Normal An MS sends an update location message whenever it moves into a new location area 1. The network broadcasts a parameter that specifies the regular time periods in which every attached MS must provide a location update type periodic registration 2.
MS sends a periodic registration based on the parameters been broadcast by the network. In recent years the data rates of fixed modems has increased from 9. GSM phones have been capable of only 9.
This gives GSM network operators the possibility to offer new competitive data applications that attract and maintain new end-users. The basic types of telecommunications connection that the DTI handles are, circuit switched. The circuit is set-up from end to end and is maintained for the duration of the call, regardless of whether it is being used or not. This is suitable for speech calls.
GSM System Survey - LZT1233321
Data can be sent with either of the above methods. The timeslots do not need to be in consecutive order. However, the basic data rate is restricted to a maximum of Non-transparent data using full-rate channel Within standard GSM network all connections are circuit switched. Supported user data rates are 2. This service consists of two establishment phases. PSTN connections supporting V. This will allow a maximum data rate of 9.
The network will be responsible for delivering in one interface what was received in the other. Interworking attributes may be defined for supporting bearer services over transit networks.
During call set-up, by default, the network chooses the maximum rate possible, limited by the MSs multislot class and by a user-set maximum number of time slots. The user may wish to reduce their bandwidth due to costs or because they do not need it for some time during a call e. If this is not available, the network reduces the number being used and informs the MS to do so also. The network reduces the number of time slots, in the handover or cell congestion cases, if a time slot becomes available at a later stage, the network may assign it to the HSCSD user.
PSTN 6. PAD 4. DTI 6. The BC includes the bearer service type fax, data and the requested transmission rate. PSPDN is used as an example in the figure above. GPRS is a packet switching technology. The circuit is set up from end to end when it is necessary to transmit or receive information. With each new packet a different connection may be used. This is better suited to applications that have busty type of transmissions, for example, Internet browsing. The packet data transmission is thus carried out on an end-to-end basis, including air interface.
By introducing the GPRS system into the GSM system, it is possible to co-ordinate, attach, authenticate and handle subscriber and terminal data for both circuit-switched and packet-switched communication. The packet data function does not interfere with the circuit- switched services offered by GSM.
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Data packets sent from the MSs can use different radio channels for different packets during transmission.
An MS can be used for both circuit-switched and packet-switched communication or for either packet-switched and circuit-switched communication. Evolution of the GSM network The existing digital wireless standards continue to be developed to increase capacity, coverage, quality, and data rates.
There has been a series of developments that is still in progress with the aim of enhancing the GSM network functionality. The next enhancement is GPRS, that is, a packet-switched service that allows full mobility and wide-area coverage.
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In GPRS four coding schemes CS have been defined corresponding to a different ratio of coding bits and information bits. The more coding bits that are added the more transmission is secured, but information rate decreases.
Therefore CS 1 is the most secured coding scheme but provides the lowest information rate 9. CS 4 is the least reliable coding scheme, but has the highest rate of information bits The EDGE standard has been defined for both circuit-switched and packet-switched traffic.
Which means that the same service could be supplied by ECSD with fewer timeslots. However, from a core network view the same handling is done, meaning that no changes are needed to existing infrastructure to support EDGE in the core network.
This is the main reason for the higher EDGE bit rates.An omni directional cell or s, it was only in omnicell is served by a BTS with an antenna which that the cellular transmits equally in all directions degrees.
For this reason, the amplitude of the signal at the time of sampling is measured and approximated to one of a finite set of values. Each series was written by different working parties and a number of expert groups. This may occur if an MS is out of the area of coverage and ensures that needless paging is not performed. The length of separation between two channels is dependent on the amount of information which is to be transmitted within the channel. Therefore, it must not be considered as a specification of the system.