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Networking redelocidi.gq - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Two types of networks. ▫ Peer – to – peer: Allow any entity to both request and provide network services. ▫ Server – centric: Places restrictions upon which. Thank you for choosing Cisco Networking Essentials. This book is part of a family of premium-quality Sybex books, all of which are written by outstanding.
Where 10 to 15 or fewer users will be sharing resources. No server is available. Nobody has the time or knowledge to act as a network administrator. There is little or no concerns about security security in data processing is the ability to protect data from unauthorized access or, theft or damage 5. The organization and the network will experience only limited growth within the foreseeable future.
Advantages of using peer to peer They are easy to configure Computers communicate easily. They dont require additional server hardware or software Users can manage their own resources. They dont require a network administrator They reduce total cost of network setup.
Disadvantages of using peer to peer 1. They provide a limited number of connections for shared resources. Computers with shared resources suffer from sluggish performance. They dont allow for central management 4.
Users are responsible for managing resources. These resources include data in shared directories, printers, fax cards, and so on. They offer very poor security.
In client-server model one or more computers work as servers and other computers work as clients. A client is a machine, typically a personal computer or mobile, desktop or laptop that is equipped with network software applications. These applications are designed to request and receive data over the span of the network. The server computer controls the whole network, this enables server to keep profile of users, data, and software etc completely in tacked and organized.
A server is a storehouse of files, folders, databases and even more complicated applications. A server is more powerful than a client and can support and process the requests of a large number of clients. Operating systems of servers are different from that of clients. Client Operating systems: Windows NT, server, , Disadvantages Cost: Advantages 1.
They are best suited for 10 or more users. Additional servers are added to increase capacity. Client server networks offer centralized backup where data can be stored in one server. Flexibility - New technology can be easily integrated into the system. Accessibility - Server can be accessed remotely and across multiple platforms.
A Windows domain is a logical group of computers running versions of the Microsoft Windows operating system that share a central directory database. This central database known as Active Directory starting with Windows contains the user accounts and security information for the resources in that domain. Each person who uses computers within a domain receives his or her own unique account, or user name. This account can then be assigned access to resources within the domain.
In a domain, the directory resides on computers that are configured as " domain controllers. The computers in a domain can share physical proximity on a small LAN or they can be located in different parts of the world. As long as they can communicate, their physical position is irrelevant.
Networking Standards: A network standard is in short a reference model to make sure products of different vendors can work together in a network; The International Organization for Standardization ISO lays out those standards. A network protocol is a set of rule, which govern communication between two or more devices or computer; or, a set of rule and regulation for the communication between devices within a network.
In short, a network standard helps vendors to create products that can all work together; a network protocol allows different network devices to communicate with each other.
There are a lot of different network standards that the majority of computers use. There are standards for both physical hardware and for signaling. For example, IEEE It includes specifications for the type of radio that is used, how strong the signal can be amplified, a standard set of encryption schemes, etc. This is a standard for hardwired networks.
When people talk about Cat 5 cable, this is usually what they mean. It defines what types of wiring can be used, transmission power requirements, connector styles, etc.
There are also protocols. When people talk about IP addresses, subnet masks, default gateways, etc. Baseband systems use digital signaling over a single frequency. Signals flow in the form of discrete pulses of electricity or light. With baseband transmission, the entire communication channel capacity is used to transmit a single data signal. The digital signal uses the complete bandwidth of the cable, which constitutes a single channel. A cable's total bandwidth is the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that are carried over that cable.
Each device on a baseband network transmits bidirectional, and some can transmit and receive at the same time. Bidirectional Digital Wave As the signal travels along the network cable, it gradually decreases in strength and can become distorted. If the cable length is too long, the result is a signal that is weak or distorted.
The received signal may be unrecognizable or misinterpreted. As a safeguard, baseband systems sometimes use repeaters to receive an incoming signal and retransmit it at its original strength and definition to increase the practical length of a cable. It is the Digital communication technology in which the entire bandwidth of a medium such as a wire, cable, or channel, is used to transmit a single signal.
Therefore, only one communication channel is available at any given time. Baseband is cheaper and simpler technology than broadband, and is employed in most types of local area networks such as Ethernet. Broad Band: Broadband systems use analog signaling and a range of frequencies. With analog transmission, the signals are continuous and no discrete. Signals flow across the physical medium in the form of electromagnetic or optical waves. With broadband transmission, signal flow is unidirectional.
Unidirectional Analog Wave If sufficient total bandwidth is available, multiple analog transmission systems such as cable television and network transmissions can be supported simultaneously on the same cable. Each transmission system is allocated a part of the total bandwidth.
All devices associated with a given transmission system, such as all computers using a LAN cable, must then be tuned so that they use only the frequencies that are within the allocated range. While baseband systems use repeaters, broadband systems use amplifiers to regenerate analog signals at their original strength.
Because broadband transmission signal flow is unidirectional, there must be two paths for data flow in order for a signal to reach all devices.
There are two common ways to do this: Mid-split broadband configuration divides the bandwidth into two channels, each using a different frequency or range of frequencies. One channel is used to transmit signals, the other to receive signals. In dual-cable broadband configuration, each device is attached to two cables. One cable is used to send and the other is used to receive.
The term comes from how the high-speed systems work. Imagine your Internet connection as a highway.
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Your dial up connection would be a small highway with only a few lanes, so its harder for lots of cars data to get through. Broadband, however, is a huge highway with lots and lots of lanes, so tons of cars data can go through at the same time.
This makes everything go faster. Attenuation is a general term that refers to any reduction in the strength of a signal. Attenuation occurs with any type of signal, whether digital or analog.
Sometimes called LOSS, attenuation is a natural consequence of signal transmission over long distances. The extent of attenuation is usually expressed in units called decibels dBs. Attenuation occurs on networks for several reasons:. Cross Talk: Crosstalk is a disturbance caused by the electric or magnetic fields of one telecommunication signal affecting a signal in an adjacent circuit.
In a telephone circuit, crosstalk can result in your hearing part of a voice conversation from another circuit. The phenomenon that causes crosstalk is called electromagnetic interference EMI.
It can occur in microcircuits within computers and audio equipment as well as within network circuits. The term is also applied to optical signals that interfere with each other. Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one network device to another.
There are several types of cable which are commonly used with LANs. In some cases, a network will utilize only one type of cable, other networks will use a variety of cable types.
The type of cable chosen for a network is related to the network's topology, protocol, and size. Understanding the characteristics of different types of cable and how they relate to other aspects of a network is necessary for the development of a successful network.
Unshielded twisted pair UTP is the most popular and is generally the best option for networks.
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Each pair of wires is individually shielded with foil. There is a foil or braid shield inside the jacket covering all wires as a group.
There is a shield around each individual pair, as well as around the entire group of wires referred to as double shield twisted pair. Coaxial cabling has a single copper conductor at its center. A plastic layer provides insulation between the center conductor and a braided metal shield. The metal shield helps to block any outside interference from fluorescent lights, motors, and other computers.
Fiber optic cable has the ability to transmit signals over much longer distances than coaxial and twisted pair. There are two common types of fiber cables -- single mode and multimode. Multimode cable has a larger diameter; however, both cables provide high bandwidth at high speeds.
Single mode can provide more distance, but it is more expensive. Difficult to work with; can cover only a limited distance.
Difficult to work with Thicknet ; limited bandwidth; limited application Thinnet ; damage to cable can bring down entire network.
Cannot be tapped, so security is better; can be used over great distances; is not susceptible to EMI; has a higher data rate than coaxial and twisted-pair cable.
Networking Devices: Modem The word "modem" is a contraction of the words modulator-demodulator. A modem is typically used to send digital data over a phone line The sending modem modulates the data into a signal that is compatible with the phone line, and the receiving modem demodulates the signal back into digital data.
Wireless modems convert digital data into radio signals and back. Hub is a common connection point for devices in a network. A hub contains multiple ports Hub broadcasts the packets to all the ports including the incoming port. Network repeaters regenerate incoming electrical, wireless, or optical signals. With physical media like Ethernet or Wi-Fi, data transmissions can only span a limited distance before the quality of the signal degrades.
Repeaters attempt to preserve signal integrity and extend the distance over which data can safely travel.
Bridges Bridge is a device which connects two segments of a network. Bridges inspect incoming traffic and decide whether to forward or discard it. An Ethernet bridge, for example, inspects each incoming Ethernet frame - including the source and destination MAC addresses, and sometimes the frame size.
If the destination address is not on the other side of the bridge it will not transmit the data. Packet forwarding is performed using software.
Usually Bridges have 2 ports can go up to a max of 16 ports. Such a device is required for both ends of a T-1 or T-3 connection; the units at both ends must be from the same manufacturer. Short for Network Interface Card, a NIC is also commonly referred to as an Ethernet card and network adapter and is an expansion card that enables a computer to connect to a network such as a home network or the Internet using an Ethernet cable with a RJ connector.
Some NIC cards work with. A network switch is a small hardware device that joins multiple computers together within one local area network LAN. Network switches appear nearly identical to network hubs, but a switch generally contains more intelligence and a slightly higher price tag than a hub. Unlike hubs, network switches are capable of inspecting data packets as they are received, determining the source and destination device of each packet, and forwarding them appropriately.
By delivering messages only to the connected device intended, a network switch conserves network bandwidth and offers generally better performance than a hub.
As with hubs, Ethernet implementations of network switches are the most common. Different models of network switches support differing numbers of connected devices. Most consumergrade network switches provide either four or eight connections for Ethernet devices. Switches can be connected to each other, a so-called daisy chaining method to add progressively larger number of devices to a LAN. Types of Network Switches Unmanaged Network Switches Unmanaged network switches are commonly used in home networks and small businesses.
It allows devices on the network to communicate with each other, such as computer to computer or printer to computer. An unmanaged switch does not need to be monitored or configured using external software applications. They are easy to set up and require only cable connections. Unmanaged network switches are ideal for small and medium networks.
Managed Switches. They are managed by an embedded simple network management protocol SNMP , secure shell or via a serial console. There are two types of managed switches: Smart switches fall between unmanaged and managed switches. They offer most of the features of managed switches without their cost or complexity. A smart switch is able to configure virtual LANs, ports and set up trucking. Smart switches are ideally used in fast LANs, which are those that support gigabit data transfer.
Enterprise managed switches are also called fully managed switches. Such a device is required for both ends of a T-1 or T-3 connection; the units at both ends must be from the same manufacturer. Switch: A network switch is a small hardware device that joins multiple computers together within one local area network LAN.
Network switches appear nearly identical to network hubs, but a switch generally contains more intelligence and a slightly higher price tag than a hub. Unlike hubs, network switches are capable of inspecting data packets as they are received, determining the source and destination device of each packet, and forwarding them appropriately.
By delivering messages only to the connected device intended, a network switch conserves network bandwidth and offers generally better performance than a hub.
As with hubs, Ethernet implementations of network switches are the most common. Different models of network switches support differing numbers of connected devices. Most consumergrade network switches provide either four or eight connections for Ethernet devices.
Switches can be connected to each other, a so-called daisy chaining method to add progressively larger number of devices to a LAN. Types of Network Switches Unmanaged Network Switches Unmanaged network switches are commonly used in home networks and small businesses. It allows devices on the network to communicate with each other, such as computer to computer or printer to computer. An unmanaged switch does not need to be monitored or configured using external software applications.
They are easy to set up and require only cable connections. Unmanaged network switches are ideal for small and medium networks. They are managed by an embedded simple network management protocol SNMP , secure shell or via a serial console. There are two types of managed switches: smart switches and enterprise managed switches. Smart switches fall between unmanaged and managed switches.
They offer most of the features of managed switches without their cost or complexity. A smart switch is able to configure virtual LANs, ports and set up trucking.
Smart switches are ideally used in fast LANs, which are those that support gigabit data transfer. Enterprise managed switches are also called fully managed switches. They have a wide range of management features, including a web interface, SNMP agent and command-line interface.
Additional features include the ability to restore, backup, modify and display configurations. They have more features than traditional managed and unmanaged switches and are generally more expensive.
They are found in large enterprises, which are comprised of a large number of connections and nodes. Router Routers connect networks. A router links computers to the Internet, so users can share the connection NAT.
A router acts as a dispatcher, choosing the best path for information to travel so it's received quickly. The router is the only device that sees every message sent by any computer on either of the company's networks.
The Router looks at the IP Address to route the packets. All but the most basic of networks require devices to provide connectivity and functionality. Understanding how these networking devices operate and identifying the functions they perform are essential skills for any network administrator. When a router needs to forward a packet for one host through another router.
When a router needs to forward a packet from one host to the destination host on the same network Reverse Address Resolution Protocol RARP is a network layer protocol used to resolve an IP address from a given hardware address such as an Ethernet address. This is known as "dotted decimal" notation. Example: Subnet A portion of a network sharing a particular subnet addresses.
Subnet maskA bit combination used to describe which portion of an address refers to the subnet and which part refers to the host. Every IP address consists of two parts, one identifying the network and one identifying the node. The Class of the address and the subnet mask determine which part belongs to the network address and which part belongs to the node address.
Subnet mask is used in conjunction with the ANDING process to know whether the source computer needs to send the packet within the network or to the default gateway. Class A, B, and C networks have default masks, also known as natural masks, as shown here: Default subnet masks: Class A - If you do not subnet, you are only able to use one network from your Class A, B, or C network, which is unrealistic. Each data link on a network must have a unique network ID, with every node on that link being a member of the same network.
If you break a major network Class A, B, or C into smaller subnetworks, it allows you to create a network of interconnecting subnetworks. In order to subnet a network, extend the natural mask using some of the bits from the host ID portion of the address to create a subnetwork ID. For example, given a Class C network of With these three bits, it is possible to create eight subnets.
With the remaining five host ID bits, each subnet can have up to 32 host addresses, 30 of which can actually be assigned to a device since host ids of all zeros or all ones are not allowed it is very important to remember this.
So, with this in mind, these subnets have been created. Routing actually consists of two separate, but related, tasks: 1. Define paths for the transmission of packets through an internetwork. Forwarding packets based upon the defined paths Static vs.
Dynamic Routing Routing can be accomplished by manually entering the information necessary for packets to reach any part of the internetwork into each router. Static routing works reasonably well for very small networks, but does not scale well.One cable is used to send and the other is used to receive. A hub contains multiple ports Hub broadcasts the packets to all the ports including the incoming port. All but the most basic of networks require devices to provide connectivity and functionality.
Public 20 18 Why Networking? For example, given a Class C network of Cabling: A network cabling that connects a computer to a network device. Crossover cables are most commonly used to connect two hosts directly. Pin 2 on connector A goes to Pin 6 on connector B etc.
All but the most basic of networks require devices to provide connectivity and functionality.
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